parts of an upright piano

Parts of An Upright Piano and the Details

Upright Piano Parts

If you are wondering about the parts of an upright piano, the device is generally divided into these systems:

  • Sound resonating system
  • Pedal control system
  • Striking system
  • Cabinet

Keep in mind that upright piano is completely different from grand piano in terms of strings installation. As the name suggests, the upright piano has all the parts constructed in vertical orientation. The strings, especially, are within the vertical orientation. And since the hammers are responsible for striking the strings, they must be installed in vertical orientation too.

In the upright piano, there are around of 10,000 different parts divided (or constructed) within 4 main system. The 4 main systems themselves have each of their own important functions – so each part would contribute to the perfection result of the piano.

Today, some manufacturers prefer plastic over wood to make the piano less heavy. But some of the dedicated manufacturers prefer the original wood materials because of the quality. For instance, frames are generally made from cast iron with wooden oak panels, beams, and posts for sturdy quality and perfect strength. The pin blocks or tuning planks are from maple. And for other common materials, you can expect brass, wool felt, walnut or ash wood, aluminum, ivory, and high carbon steel.
internal eksternal parts of an upright piano spinet console studio piano

Sound Resonating System

This system alone is divided to 2 major parts:

Strings and their supporting structure.

It includes pin block, wooden back posts, and iron frame. These parts would include agraffes (pressure bars), back beam, tuning pins, hitch pins, and soundboard base. The strings can carry around 90 kg of tension, which contribute to the collective tension reaching around 20 tonnes.

Soundboard and associated structure.

It includes the bridge and the ribs. They are parts of the sounding buttons and bridge pins. The soundboard is generally made from spruce wood because the sound transference qualities are pretty high – around 5,500 meters a second. Not to mention that spruce also has low specific gravity. The wood is light and yet strong. The woods chosen for the soundboard must have straight and close grain without any knots.

Pedal Control System

This one usually has levers, pedal props, springs, pedal rods, and pedal brackets. The pedals can be two or three in general construction.
upright piano parts diagram names structure

Striking System

This one consists of 2 components:

The keyboard

It has keyframe, keys (black and white – 88 keys in general), and associated parts, like back rail cloth, paper and cloth punchings, bushing cloth, key pins, capstan button, and capstan wire

The action

It consists of 88 hammers, butt assemblies, center rail, 65 to 70 dampers, 88 wippen assemblies, and hammer rail, which further includes butts, hammer felt, hammer shanks, damper leers, springs, damper wires, jacks, regulating damper rod buttons, spoons, backchecks, and also damper springs. Many of them have hinging assembly mechanism with the springs, brackets, pins, and screws.


The cabinet alone has the top and bottom board, along with lower front board, legs, keyslip, casters, bottom sill, sidearms, fall board, toe blocks, upper front board, keybed, and music rack.